Plasmablastic lymphoma: Does prognosis differ with HIV status and site of disease?

Oncology, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Reports,2014,3,2,25-29.
Published:July 2014
Type:Orginal Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

K. Govind babu, M. C. Suresh Babu, Linu Jacob Abraham, T. M. Suresh, Lokanatha Dasappa, Nagesh T. Sirsath, Kuntejowdahalli C. Lakshmaiah

Department of Medical Oncology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, MH Mari Gowda Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Abstract:

Background: Apart from its common occurrence in the oral cavity in HIV‑positive patients, plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) has also been described at extraoral sites and among immunocompetent individuals. There is sparse data quoting prognostication of PBL depending on the site of occurrence and HIV status of patients. Aims: The present study was carried out at a tertiary oncology center to address the issue whether PBLs occurring at oral and extraoral sites differ prognostically and whether HIV status of patient has any impact on prognosis. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at our center on consecutive patients diagnosed with PBL, from January 2008 to December 2012. Results: We had four patients with oral PBL; three male and one female. Sites of involvement were oral tongue and buccal mucosa. Two patients died within 6 months of diagnosis due to disease progression while on treatment. One patient was lost to follow‑up after achieving complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy. Only one patient completed the prescribed schedule of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is in CR with 33 months follow‑up. There were four extraoral PBL patients; three female and one male. Extraoral sites were ileocaecal region, ovary, clavicle and rectum. Three patients died within 6 months due to progressive disease during treatment. Only one patient has completed chemotherapy and is in CR with18 months follow‑up. Among all these eight oral and extraoral PBL patients, four were HIV positive. Two of them are in CR after treatment (18 months and 33 months follow‑up). One patient died during treatment and one patient was lost to follow‑up after being in CR. Unfortunately, none of the other four HIV‑negative patients could survive for more than 6 months after diagnosis. Conclusion: Both oral and extraoral PBLs have aggressive clinical course and an overall unfavorable outcome. Prognosis of HIV‑associated PBL seems to be better with addition of highly active antiretroviral therapy to chemotherapy. Further large sample studies are needed to confirm these results.